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Philosophy behind earthquake resisting design of the common structures such as bridges is to ensure that i) hazards to life should be minimized ii) design ground motions have poor probability of being exceeded during normal lifetime of structure iii) essential bridges function is maintained iv) there are no damage (or, only small and repairable non-structural damage) due to design earthquakes v) collapse is prevented during more strong earthquakes, which is achieved by ensuring ducile, rather than brittle behavior of the structural response. The 1971 San Fernando earthquake is a major turnaround in the fixing of seismic design criteria for bridges. But no specified method to determine the design forces accurately for the seismic load is available. AASHTO suggest an approximate method using some semi­empirical formulas to determine the design seismic forces.

Philosophy behind eEarthquake -resistantresisting designs of the common structures such as bridges isare generally developed keeping in mind several requirements. to ensure that i) The design must minimize the potential of hazards to life should be minimized. ii) The probability of design ground motions being have poor probability of being exceeded during the normal typical lifetime of the structure should be low. iii) eEssential bridges function  should beis maintained. iv) there are noThere should be no damage (or, only minorsmall and, repairable non-structural damage) owingdue to design earthquakes. v) collapseThe bridge should not collapse is prevented during powerfulmore strong earthquakes, (this which is can be achieved by making the ensuring ducile, rather than brittle behavior of the structural response ductile instead of brittle). The 1971 San Fernando earthquake iswas a major turning pointturnaround in the development fixing of seismic design criteria for bridges. But no specified method to determine the design forces accurately for the seismic load is available. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)  proposes the use ofsuggest an approximate method that employsusing some semi­-empirical formulas tofor determiningdetermine the design seismic forces of seismic loads. However, no method has yet been developed for accurately determining such design seismic forces.

Philosophy behind earthquake resisting design of the common structures such as bridges is to ensure that i) hazards to life should be minimized ii) design ground motions have poor probability of being exceeded during normal lifetime of structure iii) essential bridges function is maintained iv) there are no damage (or, only small and repairable non-structural damage) due to design earthquakes v) collapse is prevented during more strong earthquakes, which is achieved by ensuring ducile, rather than brittle behavior of the structural response. The 1971 San Fernando earthquake is a major turnaround in the fixing of seismic design criteria for bridges. But no specified method to determine the design forces accurately for the seismic load is available. AASHTO suggest an approximate method using some semi­empirical formulas to determine the design seismic forces.

Philosophy behind eEarthquake -resistantresisting designs of the common structures such as bridges isare generally developed keeping in mind several requirements. to ensure that i) The design must minimize the potential of hazards to life should be minimized. ii) The probability of design ground motions  have poor probability of being exceeded during the normal typical lifetime of the structure should be low. iii) eEssential bridges function  should beis maintained. iv) there are noThere should be no damage (or, only minorsmall and, repairable non-structural damage) owingdue to design earthquakes. v) collapseThe bridge should not collapse is prevented during powerfulmore strong earthquakes, (this which is can be achieved by making the ensuring ducile, rather than brittle behavior of the structural response ductile instead of brittle). The 1971 San Fernando earthquake iswas a major turning pointturnaround in the development fixing  of seismic design criteria for bridges. But However, no specified method has yet been developed to for accurately determininge the such design seismic forces accurately for the seismic load is available. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)  proposes the use ofsuggest an approximate method that employsusing some semi­-empirical formulas tofor determiningdetermine the design seismic forces of seismic loads.

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