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大脳皮質は、ヒトでは頭皮上の皿状電極を介して、ラットやマウス等の動物ではおもに硬膜上に設置した電極を介して記録される。大脳皮質は6層からなり、錐体細胞や顆粒細胞など形態の異なる神経細胞を含む。脳波の主要電源と考えらているのは、第V層に細胞体がある錐体細胞である。この細胞は皮質1mm2に約10万個存在し、皮質に万遍なく分布している。皮質下への出力をもち、大きい樹状突起が皮質表面に垂直に伸展している。表層に近い樹状突起には主に脳幹網様体―視床非特殊核からの神経細胞がシナプス結合し、深部には主に視床特殊核からの神経細胞がシナプス結合している。大脳皮質表面に伸びた樹状突起に結合したシナプスによってEPSPまたはIPSPが生じると、錐体細胞の内部に電流が流れて、皮質表面の樹状突起末端と皮質第V層にある細胞体との間で双極子(+ 極と – 極)となる。

The cerebral cortex is recorded via circular electrodes placed on the scalp in humans, and via electrodes implanted to the dura mater in animals such as rats and mice. The cerebral cortex consists of six layers, and contains various kinds of neurons that differ in their morphology, such as pyramidal cells and granule cells. Pyramidal neurons with somas located in layer V of the cerebral cortex are believed to be a major source of brain waves. Approximately 100,000 of these cells are present in every square millimeter of cerebral cortex, where they are distributed uniformly.  They have a large dendrite that extends vertical to the cortical surface, and output to subcortical areas. Dendrites near the cortical surface form synapses with neurons from the brain stem reticular formation and non-specific thalamic nuclei, whereas those deeper in the cortex primarily form synapses with neurons from specific thalamic nuclei. When EPSP and IPSP are generated by synaptic activity along the dendrites projecting to the cortical surface, current flows into the pyramidal cells, creating an electric dipole (i.e. a cathode and anode) between the dendritic terminals at the surface and the somas in layer V.

The Recordings of the cerebral cortex is recordedare made in humans via circular electrodes placed on the scalp in humans, and in animals such as rats and mice via electrodes implanted to the dura mater in animals such as rats and mice. The cerebral cortex consists. Consisting of six layers, andthis structure contains various kinds of neurons that differ in their morphology, such as pyramidal cells and granule cells, which differ in their morphology. Pyramidal neurons with somas located in layer V of the cerebral cortex are believed to be a major source of brain waves. Approximately 100,000 of theseEEG brainwave signals. These cells are present in everydistributed uniformly in the cerebral cortex, with a density of approximately 100,000 per square millimeter of cerebral cortex, where they are distributed uniformly. tissue. They haveare characterized by a large apical dendrite that extends vertical to the cortical surface, and by their efferent output to subcortical areas. Dendrites near the cortical surface form synapses with neurons originating from the brain stem reticular formation and non-specific thalamic nuclei, whereas those deeper in the cortex primarily form synapses with neurons projecting from specific thalamic nuclei. When EPSP and IPSP (i.e. excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials) are generated by synaptic activity along the dendrites projecting to the cortical surface: when this happens, current flows into the pyramidal cells, creating an electric dipole (i.e. a cathodepositive and anodenegative charge separation) between the dendritic terminals at the surface and the somas in layer V.

Recordings of theThe cerebral cortex are made is a six-layered structure comprising various kinds of neuronal cells, such as pyramidal cells and granule cells, which differ in their morphologies. Cerebral cortical recordings in humans are made via circular electrodes placed on the scalp, and in animals such as rats and mice, these recordings are made via electrodes implanted toin the dura mater. Consisting of six layers, this structure contains various kinds of neurons, such as pyramidal cells and granule cells, which differ in their morphology. Pyramidal neuronscells, with somas located in layer V of the cerebral cortex, are believed to be a major source of EEG brainwave signals. These cells are distributed uniformly in the cerebral cortex, with a density of approximately 100,000 per square millimeter of tissue. They are characterized by a large apical dendrite that extends verticalvertically to the cortical surface, and by their efferent output to subcortical areas. Dendrites near the cortical surface form synapses with neurons originating from the brain stem reticular formation and non-specific thalamic nuclei, whereas those deeper in the cortex primarily form synapses with neurons projecting from specific thalamic nuclei. EPSP and IPSP (i.e. excitatoryExcitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (i.e., EPSPs and IPSPs) are generated by synaptic activity along the dendrites projecting to the cortical surface: when this happens, current flows into the pyramidal cells, creating an electric dipole (i.e.., positive and negative charge separation) between the dendritic terminals at the surface and the somas in layer V.

Recordings of theThe cerebral cortex are made is a six-layered structure comprising various types of neuronal cells such as pyramidal cells and granule cells, which differ in their morphologies. Cerebral cortical recordings in humans are made via circular electrodes placed on the scalp, and in animals such as rats and mice, these recordings are made via electrodes implanted toin the dura mater. Consisting of six layers, this structure contains various kinds of neurons, such as pyramidal cells and granule cells, which differ in their morphology. Pyramidal neuronscells, with somas located in layer V of the cerebral cortex, are believed to be a major source of EEG brainwave signals. These cells are distributed uniformly in the cerebral cortex, with a density of approximately 100,000 per square millimeter of tissue. They are characterized by a large apical dendrite that extends verticalvertically to the cortical surface, and by their efferent output to subcortical areas. Dendrites near the cortical surface form synapses with neurons originating from the brain stem reticular formation and non-specific thalamic nuclei, whereas those deeper in the cortex primarily form synapses with neurons projecting from specific thalamic nuclei. EPSP and IPSP (i.e. excitatoryExcitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (i.e., EPSPs and IPSPs) are generated by synaptic activity along the dendrites projecting to the cortical surface: when this happens, current flows into the pyramidal cells, creating an electric dipole (i.e.., positive and negative charge separation) between the dendritic terminals at the surface and the somas in layer V.

大脳皮質は、ヒトでは頭皮上の皿状電極を介して、ラットやマウス等の動物ではおもに硬膜上に設置した電極を介して記録される。大脳皮質は6層からなり、錐体細胞や顆粒細胞など形態の異なる神経細胞を含む。脳波の主要電源と考えらているのは、第V層に細胞体がある錐体細胞である。この細胞は皮質1mm2に約10万個存在し、皮質に万遍なく分布している。皮質下への出力をもち、大きい樹状突起が皮質表面に垂直に伸展している。表層に近い樹状突起には主に脳幹網様体―視床非特殊核からの神経細胞がシナプス結合し、深部には主に視床特殊核からの神経細胞がシナプス結合している。大脳皮質表面に伸びた樹状突起に結合したシナプスによってEPSPまたはIPSPが生じると、錐体細胞の内部に電流が流れて、皮質表面の樹状突起末端と皮質第V層にある細胞体との間で双極子(+ 極と – 極)となる。

The cerebral cortex is recorded via circular electrodes placed on the scalp in humans, and via electrodes implanted to the dura mater in animals such as rats and mice. The cerebral cortex consists of six layers, and contains various kinds of neurons that differ in their morphology, such as pyramidal cells and granule cells. Pyramidal neurons with somas located in layer V of the cerebral cortex are believed to be a major source of brain waves. Approximately 100,000 of these cells are present in every square millimeter of cerebral cortex, where they are distributed uniformly.  They have a large dendrite that extends vertical to the cortical surface, and output to subcortical areas. Dendrites near the cortical surface form synapses with neurons from the brain stem reticular formation and non-specific thalamic nuclei, whereas those deeper in the cortex primarily form synapses with neurons from specific thalamic nuclei. When EPSP and IPSP are generated by synaptic activity along the dendrites projecting to the cortical surface, current flows into the pyramidal cells, creating an electric dipole (i.e. a cathode and anode) between the dendritic terminals at the surface and the somas in layer V.

The Recordings of the cerebral cortex is recordedare made in humans via circular electrodes placed on the scalp in humans, and in animals such as rats and mice via electrodes implanted to the dura mater in animals such as rats and mice. The cerebral cortex consists. Consisting of six layers, andthis structure contains various kinds of neurons that differ in their morphology, such as pyramidal cells and granule cells, which differ in their morphology. Pyramidal neurons with somas located in layer V of the cerebral cortex are believed to be a major source of brain waves. Approximately 100,000 of theseEEG brainwave signals. These cells are present in everydistributed uniformly in the cerebral cortex, with a density of approximately 100,000 per square millimeter of cerebral cortex, where they are distributed uniformly. tissue. They haveare characterized by a large apical dendrite that extends vertical to the cortical surface, and by their efferent output to subcortical areas. Dendrites near the cortical surface form synapses with neurons originating from the brain stem reticular formation and non-specific thalamic nuclei, whereas those deeper in the cortex primarily form synapses with neurons projecting from specific thalamic nuclei. When EPSP and IPSP (i.e. excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials) are generated by synaptic activity along the dendrites projecting to the cortical surface: when this happens, current flows into the pyramidal cells, creating an electric dipole (i.e. a cathodepositive and anodenegative charge separation) between the dendritic terminals at the surface and the somas in layer V.

Recordings of the cerebral cortex are made Cerebral cortical recordings in humans are made via circular electrodes placed on the scalp, and in animals such as rats and mice, these recordings are made via electrodes implanted toin the dura mater. Consisting ofThe cerebral cortex is a six layers, this-layered structure containscomprising various kinds of neuronsneuronal cells, such as pyramidal cells and granule cells, which differ in their morphologymorphologies. Pyramidal neuronscells, with somas located in layer V of the cerebral cortex, are believed to be a major source of EEG brainwave signals. These cells are distributed uniformly in the cerebral cortex, with a density of approximately 100,000 per square millimeter of tissue. They are characterized by a large apical dendrite that extends verticalvertically to the cortical surface, and by their efferent output to subcortical areas. Dendrites near the cortical surface form synapses with neurons originating from the brain stem reticular formation and non-specific thalamic nuclei, whereas those deeper in the cortex primarily form synapses with neurons projecting from specific thalamic nuclei. EPSP and IPSP (i.e. excitatoryExcitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (i.e., EPSPs and IPSPs) are generated by synaptic activity along the dendrites projecting to the cortical surface: when this happens, current flows into the pyramidal cells, creating an electric dipole (i.e.., positive and negative charge separation) between the dendritic terminals at the surface and the somas in layer V.

Recordings of the cerebral cortex are made Cerebral cortical recordings in humans are made via circular electrodes placed on the scalp, and in animals such as rats and mice, these recordings are made via electrodes implanted toin the dura mater. Consisting ofThe cerebral cortex is a six layers, this-layered structure containscomprising various kindstypes of neurons,neuronal cells such as pyramidal cells and granule cells, which differ in their morphologymorphologies. Pyramidal neuronscells, with somas located in layer V of the cerebral cortex, are believed to be a major source of EEG brainwave signals. These cells are distributed uniformly in the cerebral cortex, with a density of approximately 100,000 per square millimeter of tissue. They are characterized by a large apical dendrite that extends verticalvertically to the cortical surface, and by their efferent output to subcortical areas. Dendrites near the cortical surface form synapses with neurons originating from the brain stem reticular formation and non-specific thalamic nuclei, whereas those deeper in the cortex primarily form synapses with neurons projecting from specific thalamic nuclei. EPSP and IPSP (i.e. excitatoryExcitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (i.e., EPSPs and IPSPs) are generated by synaptic activity along the dendrites projecting to the cortical surface: when this happens, current flows into the pyramidal cells, creating an electric dipole (i.e.., positive and negative charge separation) between the dendritic terminals at the surface and the somas in layer V.

大脳皮質は、ヒトでは頭皮上の皿状電極を介して、ラットやマウス等の動物ではおもに硬膜上に設置した電極を介して記録される。大脳皮質は6層からなり、錐体細胞や顆粒細胞など形態の異なる神経細胞を含む。脳波の主要電源と考えらているのは、第V層に細胞体がある錐体細胞である。この細胞は皮質1mm2に約10万個存在し、皮質に万遍なく分布している。皮質下への出力をもち、大きい樹状突起が皮質表面に垂直に伸展している。表層に近い樹状突起には主に脳幹網様体―視床非特殊核からの神経細胞がシナプス結合し、深部には主に視床特殊核からの神経細胞がシナプス結合している。大脳皮質表面に伸びた樹状突起に結合したシナプスによってEPSPまたはIPSPが生じると、錐体細胞の内部に電流が流れて、皮質表面の樹状突起末端と皮質第V層にある細胞体との間で双極子(+ 極と – 極)となる。

The cerebral cortex is recorded via circular electrodes placed on the scalp in humans, and via electrodes implanted to the dura mater in animals such as rats and mice. The cerebral cortex consists of six layers, and contains various kinds of neurons that differ in their morphology, such as pyramidal cells and granule cells. Pyramidal neurons with somas located in layer V of the cerebral cortex are believed to be a major source of brain waves. Approximately 100,000 of these cells are present in every square millimeter of cerebral cortex, where they are distributed uniformly.  They have a large dendrite that extends vertical to the cortical surface, and output to subcortical areas. Dendrites near the cortical surface form synapses with neurons from the brain stem reticular formation and non-specific thalamic nuclei, whereas those deeper in the cortex primarily form synapses with neurons from specific thalamic nuclei. When EPSP and IPSP are generated by synaptic activity along the dendrites projecting to the cortical surface, current flows into the pyramidal cells, creating an electric dipole (i.e. a cathode and anode) between the dendritic terminals at the surface and the somas in layer V.

The Recordings of the cerebral cortex is recordedare made in humans via circular electrodes placed on the scalp in humans, and in animals such as rats and mice via electrodes implanted to the dura mater in animals such as rats and mice. The cerebral cortex consists. Consisting of six layers, andthis structure contains various kinds of neurons that differ in their morphology, such as pyramidal cells and granule cells, which differ in their morphology. Pyramidal neurons with somas located in layer V of the cerebral cortex are believed to be a major source of brain waves. Approximately 100,000 of theseEEG brainwave signals. These cells are present in everydistributed uniformly in the cerebral cortex, with a density of approximately 100,000 per square millimeter of cerebral cortex, where they are distributed uniformly. tissue. They haveare characterized by a large apical dendrite that extends vertical to the cortical surface, and by their efferent output to subcortical areas. Dendrites near the cortical surface form synapses with neurons originating from the brain stem reticular formation and non-specific thalamic nuclei, whereas those deeper in the cortex primarily form synapses with neurons projecting from specific thalamic nuclei. When EPSP and IPSP (i.e. excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials) are generated by synaptic activity along the dendrites projecting to the cortical surface: when this happens, current flows into the pyramidal cells, creating an electric dipole (i.e. a cathodepositive and anodenegative charge separation) between the dendritic terminals at the surface and the somas in layer V.

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