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工学系のサンプルをサービスレベル別にご用意しました。各々のサービスの日英翻訳・英文校正プロセスで原稿がどのように仕上がっていくかご確認ください。

国レベルでの施策・課題は、学術のテーマと結びつき易いが、それでも、例えば、平成 13 年に内閣都市再生本部が、喫緊の課題として指摘した密集市街地の大地震時の危険等については、その後、日本学術会議でも地震災害時の安全確保に関する勧告が行われたにも係わらず、今日も、多くの密集市街地に関して、決定的な解決の道筋が描けないままである。これなどは、現実の災害危険に対する対策手法の研究の遅れや、学術的取り組みがされている防災技術の活用に向けた施策の遅れがあることを想起させるが、災害に対する工学的取り組みの従来の対象の中心であった土木構造物や大規模建築物と異なり、密集市街地の小規模な民間建物の建て替え、改修、更には面的再開発などには、防災的改良を誘導するための制度、社会的仕組みの整備が不可欠である。技術と制度を結びつける工学と社会科学研究の連携や、制度の設計・運用を担っている官庁と工学との対話・連携に、課題があるものと考えられる。

また、東日本大震災では、津波による鉄筋コンクリート造建造物の破壊、津波によって押し流された自動車の出火に起因する津波避難ビル火災や市街地火災の発生など、これまでの災害に関する工学的取組の予想を超える事態も発生している。理学・工学の取り組みやその政策的応用が個々の専門的分野の中で高度化する一方で、これらの事態は分野間の対話や連携が必要になっていることを示しているといえる。

Policies and subjects at the national level can be easily linked to academic themes, but even then, regarding the dangers of major earthquakes in dense urban areas, pointed out by the Urban Renovation Headquarters as an urgent subject in 2001, many densely built areas still remain without a path for a definitive solution, despite the recommendation of safety assurance by the Science Council of Japan. This recalls the delays in researches on countermeasures against actual disaster risks and in policies to utilize academically-addressed disaster prevention technologies. But unlike civil engineering structures and large-scale buildings, which were the center of engineering efforts against disasters, rebuilding and repairing small-scale private buildings, or even completely redeveloping dense urban areas, require the establishment of an institution and a social structure that lead to improvement of disaster prevention. There seems to be a problem in the partnership between engineering and social science research, which links technology and institutions, and in the dialogue and collaboration between government agencies responsible for the design and operation of the institutions and engineering.

    Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were events that far exceeded the anticipation of engineering efforts related to disaster prevention, such as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and fire in tsunami evacuation buildings and cities caused by burning vehicles washed away by the water. While science and engineering initiatives and their political applications are becoming more sophisticated within each field of specialization, it can be said that these situations indicate a need for a closer dialogue and collaboration between different fields.

Policies and subjects at the national level can be easily linked to academic themes, but even then, regardingso, the dangersdanger of major earthquakes in dense urban areas, for example, was pointed out by the Cabinet of Urban Renovation Headquarters as an urgent subject in 2001, and yet many densely built areas still remain without a path for a definitive solution, despiteeven after the recommendation of safety assurance by the Science Council of Japan. This recalls thesuggests delays in researches on countermeasures against actual disaster risks and in policies to utilize academically-addressed apply disaster prevention technologies. addressed academically. But unlike civil engineering structures and large-scale buildings, which were the center of conventional engineering efforts against disasters, rebuilding and repairing small-scale private buildings, or even completely redeveloping dense urban areas, require the establishment of an institutioninstitutions and a social structure that lead to the improvement of disaster prevention. There seems to be a problem in the partnership between engineering and social science research, which links technology and institutions, and in the dialogue and collaboration between government agencies responsible for the design and operation of the institutions and engineering.

    Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were events that far exceeded the anticipation ofanticipated  engineering efforts related toon disaster prevention, such as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and fire in tsunami evacuation buildings and cities caused bythat caught fire from burning vehicles washed away by the water. While science and engineering initiatives and their political applications are becoming more sophisticated within each field of specialization, it can be said that these situations indicatesuggest a need for a closer dialogue and collaboration between different fields.

    Policies and subjects at the national level can be easily linked to academic themes, . but even soDespite this, in 2001, the danger of major earthquakes in dense urban areas, for example, was pointed out by the Cabinet of Urban Renovation Headquarters recognized the danger posed by major earthquakes in dense urban areas as a serious issueas an urgent subject in 2001, ; and yethowever, no definite solutions have been proposed to arrest this issuemany densely built areas still remain without a path for a definitive solution, even after the recommendations by the Science Council of for carrying out safety assurance by the Science Council of Japan. This in turn has led to suggestions thatsuggests  there are delays in researches on countermeasures against actual disaster risks and in policies to applyfor applying disaster prevention technologies addressed academically. Such research is essential, as Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were Eevents that occurred during the Great East Japan Earthquake were beyond those anticipated, and so were the that far exceeded the anticipated  engineering efforts required on in disaster prevention, . Examples of such events included the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami and burning of evacuation buildings and cities due to burning vehicles washed away by the watersuch as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and tsunami evacuation buildings and cities that caught fire from burning vehicles washed away by the water But uUnlike civil engineering structures and large-scale buildings, which have been the main focuswere the center of conventional engineering efforts against disasters, the rebuilding and repairing of small-scale private buildings, or completely redeveloping dense urban areas, requires the establishment of institutions and a social structure that lead to the improvement ofimproves disaster prevention. However, There seems to be a problem in the partnership betweencombining engineering and social science research, which links requires the involvement of technology and institutions, is difficult. and iThere are also n difficulties in the dialogue and collaboration between government agencies responsible for the design and operation of the institutions and engineering.

    Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were events that far exceeded the anticipated  engineering efforts on disaster prevention, such as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and tsunami evacuation buildings and cities that caught fire from burning vehicles washed away by the water. While science and engineering initiatives and their political applications are becoming more sophisticated within each field of specialization, the occurrence of such disastersse situations suggests a the need for a closer dialogue and collaboration between different fields.

Policies and subjects at the national level can be easily linked to academic themes, . but even soDespite this, in 2001, the danger of major earthquakes in dense urban areas, for example, was pointed out by the Cabinet of Urban Renovation Headquarters recognized the danger posed by major earthquakes in dense urban areas as a serious issueas an urgent subject in 2001, ; and yethowever, no definite solutions have been proposed to arrest this issuemany densely built areas still remain without a path for a definitive solution, even after the recommendations by the Science Council of for carrying out safety assurance by the Science Council of Japan. This suggests  thatsuggests  there are delays in researches on countermeasures against actual disaster risks and in policies to applyfor applying disaster prevention technologies addressed academically. Such research is essential, as Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were events that occurred during the Great East Japan Earthquake were beyond those anticipated, and so were the that far exceeded the anticipated  engineering efforts that would have been required on for disaster prevention, . Examples of such events included the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami and burning of evacuation buildings and cities due to burning vehicles washed away by the watersuch as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and tsunami evacuation buildings and cities that caught fire from burning vehicles washed away by the water But uUnlike for civil engineering structures and large-scale buildings, which have been the main focuswere the center of conventional engineering efforts against disasters, the rebuilding and repairing of small-scale private buildings, or completely redeveloping dense urban areas, requires the establishment of institutions and a social structure that lead to the improvement ofimproves disaster prevention. However, There seems to be a problem in the partnership betweencombining engineering and social science research, which links requires the involvement of technology and institutions, is difficult. and iThere are also n difficulties in the dialogue and collaboration between government agencies responsible for the design and operation of the institutions and engineering.

    Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were events that far exceeded the anticipated  engineering efforts on disaster prevention, such as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and tsunami evacuation buildings and cities that caught fire from burning vehicles washed away by the water. While science and engineering initiatives and their political applications are becoming more sophisticated within each field of specialization, the occurrence of such disastersse situations suggests a the need for a closer dialogue and collaboration between different fields.

国レベルでの施策・課題は、学術のテーマと結びつき易いが、それでも、例えば、平成 13 年に内閣都市再生本部が、喫緊の課題として指摘した密集市街地の大地震時の危険等については、その後、日本学術会議でも地震災害時の安全確保に関する勧告が行われたにも係わらず、今日も、多くの密集市街地に関して、決定的な解決の道筋が描けないままである。これなどは、現実の災害危険に対する対策手法の研究の遅れや、学術的取り組みがされている防災技術の活用に向けた施策の遅れがあることを想起させるが、災害に対する工学的取り組みの従来の対象の中心であった土木構造物や大規模建築物と異なり、密集市街地の小規模な民間建物の建て替え、改修、更には面的再開発などには、防災的改良を誘導するための制度、社会的仕組みの整備が不可欠である。技術と制度を結びつける工学と社会科学研究の連携や、制度の設計・運用を担っている官庁と工学との対話・連携に、課題があるものと考えられる。

また、東日本大震災では、津波による鉄筋コンクリート造建造物の破壊、津波によって押し流された自動車の出火に起因する津波避難ビル火災や市街地火災の発生など、これまでの災害に関する工学的取組の予想を超える事態も発生している。理学・工学の取り組みやその政策的応用が個々の専門的分野の中で高度化する一方で、これらの事態は分野間の対話や連携が必要になっていることを示しているといえる。

    Policies and subjects at the national level can be easily linked to academic themes, but even then, regarding the dangers of major earthquakes in dense urban areas, pointed out by the Urban Renovation Headquarters as an urgent subject in 2001, many densely built areas still remain without a path for a definitive solution, despite the recommendation of safety assurance by the Science Council of Japan. This recalls the delays in researches on countermeasures against actual disaster risks and in policies to utilize academically-addressed disaster prevention technologies. But unlike civil engineering structures and large-scale buildings, which were the center of engineering efforts against disasters, rebuilding and repairing small-scale private buildings, or even completely redeveloping dense urban areas, require the establishment of an institution and a social structure that lead to improvement of disaster prevention. There seems to be a problem in the partnership between engineering and social science research, which links technology and institutions, and in the dialogue and collaboration between government agencies responsible for the design and operation of the institutions and engineering.

    Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were events that far exceeded the anticipation of engineering efforts related to disaster prevention, such as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and fire in tsunami evacuation buildings and cities caused by burning vehicles washed away by the water. While science and engineering initiatives and their political applications are becoming more sophisticated within each field of specialization, it can be said that these situations indicate a need for a closer dialogue and collaboration between different fields.

Policies and subjects at the national level can be easily linked to academic themes, but even then, regardingso, the dangersdanger of major earthquakes in dense urban areas, for example, was pointed out by the Cabinet of Urban Renovation Headquarters as an urgent subject in 2001, and yet many densely built areas still remain without a path for a definitive solution, despiteeven after the recommendation of safety assurance by the Science Council of Japan. This recalls thesuggests delays in researches on countermeasures against actual disaster risks and in policies to utilize academically-addressed apply disaster prevention technologies. addressed academically. But unlike civil engineering structures and large-scale buildings, which were the center of conventional engineering efforts against disasters, rebuilding and repairing small-scale private buildings, or even completely redeveloping dense urban areas, require the establishment of an institutioninstitutions and a social structure that lead to the improvement of disaster prevention. There seems to be a problem in the partnership between engineering and social science research, which links technology and institutions, and in the dialogue and collaboration between government agencies responsible for the design and operation of the institutions and engineering.

    Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were events that far exceeded the anticipation ofanticipated  engineering efforts related toon disaster prevention, such as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and fire in tsunami evacuation buildings and cities caused bythat caught fire from burning vehicles washed away by the water. While science and engineering initiatives and their political applications are becoming more sophisticated within each field of specialization, it can be said that these situations indicatesuggest a need for a closer dialogue and collaboration between different fields.

    Policies and subjects at the national level can be easily linked to academic themes, . but even soDespite this, in 2001, the danger of posed by major earthquakes in dense urban areas, for example, was pointed outhighlighted by the Cabinet of Urban Renovation Headquarters as an urgentan subject issue that requires attentionin 2001, ; and yethowever, many densely built areas still remain without ado not have a path for a definitive definite solution to this issue, even after the recommendations of safety assurance by the Science Council of Japan. This suggests that there are delays in researches on countermeasures against actual disaster risks and in policies to applyfor applying disaster prevention technologies addressed academically. But uUnlike civil engineering structures and large-scale buildings, which have been the main focuswere the center of conventional engineering efforts against disasters, the rebuilding and repairing of small-scale private buildings, or completely redeveloping dense urban areas, requires the establishment of institutions and a social structure that lead to the improvement ofimproves disaster prevention. There seems appears to be a problemdifficulty in combiningin the partnership between engineering and social science research, which links technology and institutions, and in the dialogue and collaboration between government agencies responsible for the design and operation of the institutions and engineering.

    Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were Eevents that occurred during the Great East Japan Earthquake were beyond those anticipated, and so were the that far exceeded the anticipated  engineering efforts required on in disaster prevention, . Examples of such events included the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami and burning of evacuation buildings and cities due to burning vehicles washed away by the watersuch as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and tsunami evacuation buildings and cities that caught fire from burning vehicles washed away by the water. While science and engineering initiatives and their political applications are becoming more sophisticated within each field of specialization, the occurrence of such disastersse situations suggests a the need for a closer dialogue and collaboration between different fields.

Policies and subjects at the national level can be easily linked to academic themes, . but even soDespite this, in 2001, the danger of posed by major earthquakes in dense urban areas, for example, was pointed outhighlighted by the Cabinet of Urban Renovation Headquarters as an urgentan subject issue that requires attentionin 2001, ; and yethowever, many densely built areas still remain without ado not have a path for toward a definitive definite solution to this issue, even after the recommendations of safety assurance by the Science Council of Japan. This suggests that there are delays in researches on countermeasures against actual disaster risks and in policies to applyfor applying disaster prevention technologies addressed academically. But uUnlike for civil engineering structures and large-scale buildings, which have been the main focuswere the center of conventional engineering efforts against disasters, the rebuilding and repairing of small-scale private buildings, or completely redeveloping dense urban areas, requires the establishment of institutions and a social structure that lead to the improvement ofimproves disaster prevention. There seems appears to be a problemdifficulty in combiningin the partnership between engineering and social science research, which links technology and institutions, and in the dialogue and collaboration between government agencies responsible for the design and operation of the institutions and engineering.

    Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were Eevents that occurred during the Great East Japan Earthquake were beyond those anticipated, and so were the that far exceeded the anticipated  engineering efforts that would have been required on for disaster prevention, . Examples of such events included the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami and burning of evacuation buildings and cities due to burning vehicles washed away by the watersuch as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and tsunami evacuation buildings and cities that caught fire from burning vehicles washed away by the water. While science and engineering initiatives and their political applications are becoming more sophisticated within each field of specialization, the occurrence of such disastersse situations suggests a the need for a closer dialogue and collaboration between different fields.

国レベルでの施策・課題は、学術のテーマと結びつき易いが、それでも、例えば、平成 13 年に内閣都市再生本部が、喫緊の課題として指摘した密集市街地の大地震時の危険等については、その後、日本学術会議でも地震災害時の安全確保に関する勧告が行われたにも係わらず、今日も、多くの密集市街地に関して、決定的な解決の道筋が描けないままである。これなどは、現実の災害危険に対する対策手法の研究の遅れや、学術的取り組みがされている防災技術の活用に向けた施策の遅れがあることを想起させるが、災害に対する工学的取り組みの従来の対象の中心であった土木構造物や大規模建築物と異なり、密集市街地の小規模な民間建物の建て替え、改修、更には面的再開発などには、防災的改良を誘導するための制度、社会的仕組みの整備が不可欠である。技術と制度を結びつける工学と社会科学研究の連携や、制度の設計・運用を担っている官庁と工学との対話・連携に、課題があるものと考えられる。

また、東日本大震災では、津波による鉄筋コンクリート造建造物の破壊、津波によって押し流された自動車の出火に起因する津波避難ビル火災や市街地火災の発生など、これまでの災害に関する工学的取組の予想を超える事態も発生している。理学・工学の取り組みやその政策的応用が個々の専門的分野の中で高度化する一方で、これらの事態は分野間の対話や連携が必要になっていることを示しているといえる。

    Policies and subjects at the national level can be easily linked to academic themes, but even then, regarding the dangers of major earthquakes in dense urban areas, pointed out by the Urban Renovation Headquarters as an urgent subject in 2001, many densely built areas still remain without a path for a definitive solution, despite the recommendation of safety assurance by the Science Council of Japan. This recalls the delays in researches on countermeasures against actual disaster risks and in policies to utilize academically-addressed disaster prevention technologies. But unlike civil engineering structures and large-scale buildings, which were the center of engineering efforts against disasters, rebuilding and repairing small-scale private buildings, or even completely redeveloping dense urban areas, require the establishment of an institution and a social structure that lead to improvement of disaster prevention. There seems to be a problem in the partnership between engineering and social science research, which links technology and institutions, and in the dialogue and collaboration between government agencies responsible for the design and operation of the institutions and engineering.

    Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were events that far exceeded the anticipation of engineering efforts related to disaster prevention, such as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and fire in tsunami evacuation buildings and cities caused by burning vehicles washed away by the water. While science and engineering initiatives and their political applications are becoming more sophisticated within each field of specialization, it can be said that these situations indicate a need for a closer dialogue and collaboration between different fields.

Policies and subjects at the national level can be easily linked to academic themes, but even then, regardingso, the dangersdanger of major earthquakes in dense urban areas, for example, was pointed out by the Cabinet of Urban Renovation Headquarters as an urgent subject in 2001, and yet many densely built areas still remain without a path for a definitive solution, despiteeven after the recommendation of safety assurance by the Science Council of Japan. This recalls thesuggests delays in researches on countermeasures against actual disaster risks and in policies to utilize academically-addressed apply disaster prevention technologies. addressed academically. But unlike civil engineering structures and large-scale buildings, which were the center of conventional engineering efforts against disasters, rebuilding and repairing small-scale private buildings, or even completely redeveloping dense urban areas, require the establishment of an institutioninstitutions and a social structure that lead to the improvement of disaster prevention. There seems to be a problem in the partnership between engineering and social science research, which links technology and institutions, and in the dialogue and collaboration between government agencies responsible for the design and operation of the institutions and engineering.

    Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake, there were events that far exceeded the anticipation ofanticipated  engineering efforts related toon disaster prevention, such as the destruction of reinforced concrete structures by the tsunami, and fire in tsunami evacuation buildings and cities caused bythat caught fire from burning vehicles washed away by the water. While science and engineering initiatives and their political applications are becoming more sophisticated within each field of specialization, it can be said that these situations indicatesuggest a need for a closer dialogue and collaboration between different fields.

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