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2000 年から 3 年間のケースについて乗数比(3 年間の平均)をみると、政府支出の乗数比は、どの変数でも 2.00 前後のものが多く、四半期毎のばらつきを示す標準偏差も総じて小さい。その意味で、乗数の狭義の線型性はある程度保たれているといえよう。為替増価ケース、個人所得所得税減税ケースも同様である。

ただし、貨幣供給量増加ケースの各変数については、乗数の狭義の線型性が失われている。そこで、貨幣供給量を増加ではなく減少させたケースについても試みたところ、ほぼ狭義の線型性が保たれ、標準偏差も小さくなることがわかった。また、短期金利の低下余地が残されていた 1992 年~1994 年について増加のインパクトをかけてみるとやはり狭義の線型性があり、標準偏差も小さくなった。したがって、金利のゼロ制約が外れれば乗数の狭義の線型性がかなり高いと判断される。

Looking at the multiplier ratio for cases for three years from 2000 (average over three years), the multiplier ratio of government expenditure is often around 2.00 for whichever variable, and the standard deviation showing quarterly fluctuations is also generally small. In this sense, it can be said that the linearity in the narrow definition of the multiplier is preserved to a certain extent.  Foreign exchange appreciation cases and personal income tax reduction cases are the same.

However, with regards to each variable in cases of an increase in the money supply, linearity in the narrow definition of the multiplier is lost.  Therefore, an attempt was made not for increases to the money supply, but for cases in which it was decreased, and it was found that the linearity in the narrow definition was kept and the standard deviation was reduced. Also, with regards to 1992 to 1994, in which there was room for the reduction in short-term interest rates, there was again linearity in the narrow definition and the standard deviation became small. Therefore, it was judged that if the constraint of zero interest rates comes off, linearity in the narrow definition of the multiplier will be fairly high.

LookingOn looking at the multiplier ratio for cases for threethe 3 years from 2000 (the three-year average over three years), ), we see that the multiplier ratio of government expenditure is oftenfrequently around 2.00 for whichever variableof the variables, and that the standard deviation showing the quarterly fluctuationsvariance is also generally small. In this sense, it can be said that the linearity in the narrow definitionsense of the multiplier is preservedmaintained to a certain extent.  Foreign exchangeThe same also applies to cases of foreign currency appreciation cases and reductions in personal income tax reduction cases are the same..

However, with regards to each variable in cases of an increase in the money supply, linearity in the narrow definitionsense of the multiplier is lost. for each variable in cases in which the money supply is increased.  Therefore, rather than for when the money supply is increased, an attempt was made not for increases to the money supply, but for for cases in which it wasis decreased, and it was found that the in such cases, linearity in the narrow definition was keptsense is maintained and the standard deviation was reduced.becomes smaller. Also, with regards toduring the period of 1992 to 1994, in which there was room for the reduction in short-term interest rates to be reduced, there was again linearity in the narrow definitionsense and the standard deviation became smallsmaller. Therefore, it wasis judged that if the constraint of zero -interest rates comes off-rate constraint is removed, linearity in the narrow definitionsense of the multiplier will be fairly high.

On looking at theThe average government expenditure multiplier ratio for the cases for the 3 years from 2000 (the three-year average), we see that the multiplier ratio of government expenditure is frequentlyis observed to be around 2.00 with a high frequency for whichever of thefor all variables considered, and that theits standard deviation, computed using quarterly data, showing the quarterly variance is also generally small. In this senseAs such, it can be said that the linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier is maintained to a certain extent. The same also applies to cases of foreign currency appreciation and reductions in personal income tax.

However, linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier is lost for each variable in cases in which this linearity does not hold with respect to any variable when the money supply is increased.  Therefore, rather than for when the money supply is increased, an attempt was made for cases in which it isthe study investigated the case of a decrease in the  decreasemoney supplyd, and it was found that in such cases,found that the linearity and low standard deviation are in the narrow sense is maintained and the standard deviation becomes smaller. Also, this  holds during for the period  of 1992 to 1994, in whichwhen there was room for short-term interest rates to be reduced, there was linearity in the narrow sense and the standard deviation became smaller. Therefore, it is judgedcan be concluded that if the zero-interest-rate constraint is removed, linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier will be fairly high.

On looking at theThe average government expenditure multiplier ratio for the cases for the 3 years from 2000 (the three-year average), we see that the multiplier ratio of government expenditure is frequentlyis observed to be around 2.00 with a high frequency for whichever of thefor all variables considered, and that theits standard deviation, computed using quarterly data, showing the quarterly variance is also generally small. In this senseAs such, it can be said that the linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier is maintained to a certain extent. The same also applies to cases of foreign currency appreciation and reductions in personal income tax reductions.

However, linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier is lost for each variable in cases in which this linearity does not hold with respect to any variable when the money supply is increased.  Therefore, rather than for when the money supply is increased, an attempt was made for cases in which it isthe study investigated the case of a decrease in the  decreasemoney supplyd, and it was found that in such cases,found that the linearity and low standard deviation are in the narrow sense is maintained and the standard deviation becomes smaller. Also, This also holds during for the period  of 1992 to 1994, in whichwhen there was room for a reduction in short-term interest rates to be reduced, there was linearity in the narrow sense and the standard deviation became smaller. Therefore, it is judgedcan be concluded that if the zero-interest-rate constraint is removed, linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier will be fairly high.

2000 年から 3 年間のケースについて乗数比(3 年間の平均)をみると、政府支出の乗数比は、どの変数でも 2.00 前後のものが多く、四半期毎のばらつきを示す標準偏差も総じて小さい。その意味で、乗数の狭義の線型性はある程度保たれているといえよう。為替増価ケース、個人所得所得税減税ケースも同様である。

ただし、貨幣供給量増加ケースの各変数については、乗数の狭義の線型性が失われている。そこで、貨幣供給量を増加ではなく減少させたケースについても試みたところ、ほぼ狭義の線型性が保たれ、標準偏差も小さくなることがわかった。また、短期金利の低下余地が残されていた 1992 年~1994 年について増加のインパクトをかけてみるとやはり狭義の線型性があり、標準偏差も小さくなった。したがって、金利のゼロ制約が外れれば乗数の狭義の線型性がかなり高いと判断される。

Looking at the multiplier ratio for cases for three years from 2000 (average over three years), the multiplier ratio of government expenditure is often around 2.00 for whichever variable, and the standard deviation showing quarterly fluctuations is also generally small. In this sense, it can be said that the linearity in the narrow definition of the multiplier is preserved to a certain extent.  Foreign exchange appreciation cases and personal income tax reduction cases are the same.

However, with regards to each variable in cases of an increase in the money supply, linearity in the narrow definition of the multiplier is lost.  Therefore, an attempt was made not for increases to the money supply, but for cases in which it was decreased, and it was found that the linearity in the narrow definition was kept and the standard deviation was reduced. Also, with regards to 1992 to 1994, in which there was room for the reduction in short-term interest rates, there was again linearity in the narrow definition and the standard deviation became small. Therefore, it was judged that if the constraint of zero interest rates comes off, linearity in the narrow definition of the multiplier will be fairly high.

LookingOn looking at the multiplier ratio for cases for threethe 3 years from 2000 (the three-year average over three years), ), we see that the multiplier ratio of government expenditure is oftenfrequently around 2.00 for whichever variableof the variables, and that the standard deviation showing the quarterly fluctuationsvariance is also generally small. In this sense, it can be said that the linearity in the narrow definitionsense of the multiplier is preservedmaintained to a certain extent.  Foreign exchangeThe same also applies to cases of foreign currency appreciation cases and reductions in personal income tax reduction cases are the same..

However, with regards to each variable in cases of an increase in the money supply, linearity in the narrow definitionsense of the multiplier is lost. for each variable in cases in which the money supply is increased.  Therefore, rather than for when the money supply is increased, an attempt was made not for increases to the money supply, but for for cases in which it wasis decreased, and it was found that the in such cases, linearity in the narrow definition was keptsense is maintained and the standard deviation was reduced.becomes smaller. Also, with regards toduring the period of 1992 to 1994, in which there was room for the reduction in short-term interest rates to be reduced, there was again linearity in the narrow definitionsense and the standard deviation became smallsmaller. Therefore, it wasis judged that if the constraint of zero -interest rates comes off-rate constraint is removed, linearity in the narrow definitionsense of the multiplier will be fairly high.

On looking atobserving the average government expenditure multiplier ratio for the cases for the 3 years from 2000, (the three-year average), we see discover that itthe multiplier ratio of government expenditure is frequently around 2.00 with a high frequency for whichever of thefor all variables considered, and that the standard deviation, showing representing the multiplier’s quarterly variance, is also generally small. In this senseAs such, it can be said that the linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier is maintained to a certain extent. The same also applies to cases of foreign currency appreciation and reductions in personal income tax.

However, this linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier is lost for each variable in cases inwhen which the money supply is increased.  Therefore, rather than for when thefocusing on cases where the money supply is increased, an the study attempted was made for to examine cases in which it is decreasedof a decrease,. and Iit was found that in such cases,that linearity in the narrow sense is is maintained and the standard deviation becomes smallereducesr. Also, This also holds during for the period of 1992- to 1994, in whichwhen there was room for short-term interest rates to be reduced, there was linearity in the narrow sense and the standard deviation became smaller. Therefore, it is judged that if the zero-interest-rate constraint is removed, linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier will be fairly high.

On looking atobserving the average government expenditure multiplier ratio for the cases for the 3 years from 2000, (the three-year average), we see discover that itthe multiplier ratio of government expenditure is frequently around 2.00 with a high frequency for whichever of thefor all variables considered, and that the standard deviation, showing representing the multiplier’s quarterly variance, is also generally small. In this sense, iIt can be said that the linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier is maintained to a certain extent. The same also applies to cases of foreign currency appreciation and reductions in personal income tax.

However, this linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier is lost for each variable in cases inwhen which the money supply is increased.  Therefore, rather than for when thefocusing on cases where the money supply is increased, an the study attempt was made for examines cases in which it is decreasedof a decrease,. and Iit was found that in such cases,that linearity in the narrow sense is is maintained and the standard deviation becomes smallereducesr. Also, This also holds during for the period of 1992- to 1994, in whichwhen there was room for short-term interest rates to be reduced, there was linearity in the narrow sense and the standard deviation became smaller. Therefore, it is judged that if the zero-interest-rate constraint is removed, linearity in the narrow sense of the multiplier will be fairly high.

2000 年から 3 年間のケースについて乗数比(3 年間の平均)をみると、政府支出の乗数比は、どの変数でも 2.00 前後のものが多く、四半期毎のばらつきを示す標準偏差も総じて小さい。その意味で、乗数の狭義の線型性はある程度保たれているといえよう。為替増価ケース、個人所得所得税減税ケースも同様である。

ただし、貨幣供給量増加ケースの各変数については、乗数の狭義の線型性が失われている。そこで、貨幣供給量を増加ではなく減少させたケースについても試みたところ、ほぼ狭義の線型性が保たれ、標準偏差も小さくなることがわかった。また、短期金利の低下余地が残されていた 1992 年~1994 年について増加のインパクトをかけてみるとやはり狭義の線型性があり、標準偏差も小さくなった。したがって、金利のゼロ制約が外れれば乗数の狭義の線型性がかなり高いと判断される。

Looking at the multiplier ratio for cases for three years from 2000 (average over three years), the multiplier ratio of government expenditure is often around 2.00 for whichever variable, and the standard deviation showing quarterly fluctuations is also generally small. In this sense, it can be said that the linearity in the narrow definition of the multiplier is preserved to a certain extent.  Foreign exchange appreciation cases and personal income tax reduction cases are the same.

However, with regards to each variable in cases of an increase in the money supply, linearity in the narrow definition of the multiplier is lost.  Therefore, an attempt was made not for increases to the money supply, but for cases in which it was decreased, and it was found that the linearity in the narrow definition was kept and the standard deviation was reduced. Also, with regards to 1992 to 1994, in which there was room for the reduction in short-term interest rates, there was again linearity in the narrow definition and the standard deviation became small. Therefore, it was judged that if the constraint of zero interest rates comes off, linearity in the narrow definition of the multiplier will be fairly high.

LookingOn looking at the multiplier ratio for cases for threethe 3 years from 2000 (the three-year average over three years), ), we see that the multiplier ratio of government expenditure is oftenfrequently around 2.00 for whichever variableof the variables, and that the standard deviation showing the quarterly fluctuationsvariance is also generally small. In this sense, it can be said that the linearity in the narrow definitionsense of the multiplier is preservedmaintained to a certain extent.  Foreign exchangeThe same also applies to cases of foreign currency appreciation cases and reductions in personal income tax reduction cases are the same..

However, with regards to each variable in cases of an increase in the money supply, linearity in the narrow definitionsense of the multiplier is lost. for each variable in cases in which the money supply is increased.  Therefore, rather than for when the money supply is increased, an attempt was made not for increases to the money supply, but for for cases in which it wasis decreased, and it was found that the in such cases, linearity in the narrow definition was keptsense is maintained and the standard deviation was reduced.becomes smaller. Also, with regards toduring the period of 1992 to 1994, in which there was room for the reduction in short-term interest rates to be reduced, there was again linearity in the narrow definitionsense and the standard deviation became smallsmaller. Therefore, it wasis judged that if the constraint of zero -interest rates comes off-rate constraint is removed, linearity in the narrow definitionsense of the multiplier will be fairly high.

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