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Oral canceris the leader of cancers throuhg out world and there is a despertate need of its early detection especially for prolonged abusers of tobacco. tumuorigenesis has been seen to be a result of a multi-step process involving two or more genetic alterations ultimately leading to transformed malignant phenotype of cancerous cells. For a long time, cancer has been known to be a disease caused by arterations in the genetic blueprint of cells. For many years, It is strongly accepted that because of differentiation and proliferation imbalance in molecular signaling programs for differenciation and proliferation can cause cancer. Another thing that is accepted is that distinct genetic expression programs are turned on or off during development, growth and differentiation.

In the past decade it has become apparent that epigenetic alterations also underlie the etymology of cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are mechanisms that result in heritable alteration of gene expression profiles which is not caused by altered primary DNA sequence. The main epigenetic control falls in chemical modification of DNA and histones. Epigenetic event like aberrant methylation of gene promoter regions is associated with gene function lost. This changed DNA indicates a heritable state and seemed to tightly be linked to the form of transcriptionally repressive chromatin.
Among cancers, oral cancer has one of the highest incidences worldwide, and its early detection is urgently required, especially for long-term users of tobacco. Tumorigenesis has been proven to be the result of a multi-step process involving 2 or more genetic alterations that ultimately lead to the transformed malignant phenotype of cancerous cells. For long, cancer has been known to be caused by alterations in the genetic blueprint of cells. It is widely accepted that an imbalance in the molecular signaling programs responsible for differentiation and proliferation can cause cancer. It is also known that distinct gene expression programs are switched on or off during development, growth, and differentiation.

In the past decade, it has become apparent that epigenetic alterations also underlie the etiology of cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are those that result in the heritable alteration of gene expression profiles without alterations in the primary DNA sequence. The core of epigenetic control lies in the chemical modification of DNA and histones. Epigenetic events such as aberrant methylation of gene promoter regions are associated with the loss of gene function. This DNA change brings about a heritable state and seems to be tightly linked to the formation of transcriptionally repressive chromatin.